julian life timeline
|Roman Emperor Pertinax is assassinated by Praetorian Guards, who then sell the throne in an auction to Didius Julianus.||Thursday, March 28th, 0193|
|Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is assassinated.||Saturday, June 1st, 0193|
|Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with the government of the Prefecture of the Gauls.||Sunday, November 6th, 0355|
|Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90,000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a campaign which would bring about his own death.||Tuesday, March 5th, 0363|
|Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the Sassanid capital, but is unable to take the city.||Wednesday, May 29th, 0363|
|Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. General Jovian is proclaimed Emperor by the troops on the battlefield.||Wednesday, June 26th, 0363|
|Glorious Revolution: Battle of the Boyne as reckoned under Julian calendar.||Saturday, July 1st, 1690|
|Battle of Aughrim (Julian calendar)The decisive victory of William s forces in Ireland.||Thursday, July 12th, 1691|
|Sweden introduces its own Swedish calendar, in an attempt to gradually merge into the Gregorian calendar, reverts to the Julian calendar on this date in 1712, and introduces the Gregorian Calendar on this date in 1753.||Monday, March 1st, 1700|
|February 17 is followed by March 1 as Sweden moves from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar.||Saturday, February 17th, 1753|
|Inventor John Stevens boat, the Juliana, begins operation as the first steam-powered ferry (service between New York, New York, and Hoboken, New Jersey).||Friday, October 11th, 1811|
|(Julian Calendar) Greeks revolt against the Ottoman Empire, beginning the Greek War of Independence.||Sunday, March 25th, 1821|
|Modified Julian Day zero.||Wednesday, November 17th, 1858|
|Alexander II of Russia is killed near his palace when a bomb is thrown at him. (Gregorian date: it was March 1 in the Julian calendar then in use in Russia.)||Sunday, March 13th, 1881|
|Using the ISO 8601 standard Year Zero definition for the Gregorian calendar preceded by the Julian calendar, the one billionth minute since the start of January 1, Year Zero occurs at 10:40 AM on this date.||Monday, April 28th, 1902|
|According to the Julian Calendar which was used at the time, Russian workers stage a march on the Winter Palace that ends in the massacre by Tsarist troops known as Bloody Sunday, setting off the Russian Revolution of 1905.||Monday, January 9th, 1905|
|(June 14 according to the Julian calendar): Battleship Potemkin uprising: sailors start a mutiny aboard the Battleship Potemkin, denouncing the crimes of autocracy, demanding liberty and an end to war.||Tuesday, June 27th, 1905|
|October Revolution: In Tallinn, Esthonia, Communist leader Jaan Anwelt leads revolutionaries in overthrowing the Provisional Government (As Estonia and Russia are still using the Julian Calendar, subsequent period references show an October 23 date).||Monday, November 5th, 1917|
|The Soviet Union adopts the Gregorian calendar (on 1 February according to the Julian calendar).||Thursday, February 14th, 1918|
|Bolsheviks kill Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his family (Julian calendar date).||Thursday, July 4th, 1918|
|Turkey adopts the Gregorian calendar: December 18, 1926 (Julian), is immediately followed by January 1, 1927 (Gregorian).||Saturday, January 1st, 1927|
|The Julian calendar takes effect for the first time.||Sunday, January 1st, 2045|
|The epoch (origin) of the modern Hebrew calendar (Proleptic Julian calendar).||Wednesday, October 7th, 3761|
- Whither are we fleeing, my most valiant men? Do you not know that flight never leads to safety, but shows the folly of a useless effort? Let us return to our companions, to be at least sharers in their coming glory, if it is without consideration that we are abandoning them as they fight for the Republic.
- Can anyone be proved innocent, if it be enough to have accused him?
- I had imagined that the prelates of the Galilaeans were under greater obligations to me than to my predecessor. For in his reign many of them were banished, persecuted, and imprisoned, and many of the so-called heretics were executed ... all of this has been reversed in my reign; the banished are allowed to return, and confiscated goods have been returned to the owners. But such is their folly and madness that, just because they can no longer be despots, ... or carry out their designs first against their brethren, and then against us, the worshippers of the gods, they are inflamed with fury and stop at nothing in their unprincipled attempts to alarm and enrage the people.
- They are irreverent to the gods and disobedient to our edicts, lenient as they are. For we allow none of them to be dragged to the altars unwillingly... It is therefore my pleasure to announce and publish to all the people by this edict, that they must not abet the seditions of the clergy ... They may hold their meetings, if they wish, and offer prayers according to their established use ... and for the future, let all people live in harmony ... Men should be taught and won over by reason, not by blows, insults, and corporal punishments. I therefore most earnestly admonish the adherents of the true religion not to injure or insult the Galilaeans in any way ... Those who are in the wrong in matters of supreme importance are objects of pity rather than of hate ...
- The end and aim of the Cynic philosophy, as indeed of every philosophy, is happiness, but happiness that consists in living according to nature, and not according to the opinions of the multitude.
- Is it not absurd when a human being tries to find happiness somewhere outside himself, and thinks that wealth and birth and the influence of friends: is of the utmost importance?
- So long as you are a slave to the opinions of the many you have not yet approached freedom or tasted its nectar: But I do not mean by this that we ought to be shameless before all men and to do what we ought not; but all that we refrain from and all that we do, let us not do or refrain from merely because it seems to the multitude somehow honorable or base, but because it is forbidden by reason and the god within us.
- I think he who knows himself will know accurately, not the opinion of others about him, but what he is in reality: he ought to discover within himself what is right for him to do and not learn it from without:
- Nature loves to hide her secrets, and she does not suffer the hidden truth about the essential nature of the gods to be flung in naked words to the ears of the profane:
- Zeal to do all that is in one's power is, in truth, a proof of piety.
- Most opportunely friends, has the time now come for me to leave life, which I rejoice to return to Nature, at her demand, like an honorable debtor, not (as some might think) bowed down with sorrow, but having learned much from the general conviction of philosophers how much happier the soul is than the body, and bearing in mind that whenever a better condition is severed from a worse, one should rejoice, rather than grieve...Considering, then that the aim of a just ruler is the welfare and security of its subjects, I was always, as you know, more inclined to peaceful measures, excluding from my conduct all license, the corrupter of deeds and of character:And therefore I thank the eternal power that I meet my end, not from secret plots, nor from the pain of a tedious illness, nor by the fate of a criminal, but that in the mid-career of glorious renown I have been founds worthy of so noble a departure from this world...
- Who and from where are you Dionysus? Since by the true Bacchus, I do not recognize you; I know only the son of Zeus. While he smells like nectar, you smell like a goat. Can it be then that the Celts because of lack of grapes Made you from cereals? Therefore one should call you Demetrius, not Dionysus, rather wheat born and Bromus, Not Bromius.
- No wild beasts are so dangerous to men as Christians are to one another.
- By purple death I'm seized and fate supreme.
- Vicisti, Galilaee
- More than any other Hellenic thinker, Julian insisted on the virtue of paradox and on the importance of the search for religious truth.
- Of all the emperors, one there was whom I recall from boyhood --bold in war, a lawgiver, far-famed in word and deed; he cared much for his country, but care not for the true faith, and loved a host of gods, False to the Lord, although true to the world.
- The Julian Society
- The Emperor Julian
- Panegyric upon Julian by Libanius, who knew him well and admired him.